Module: Technical English                             

Level: L01

Teacher: Halaimia Imene                                                     

Course: Lathe Machine


     Lathe Machine: is used in all the engineering applications and also in the college Workshops. Lathe machine is used to perform all the basic operations such as drilling, cutting, tapping, turning, etc. with the help of different tools placed in the work environment.

     A lathe is a machine tool that rotates a work piece around an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, grinding, knurling, drilling, deforming, facing, and turning with tools applied to the work piece to create an object with symmetry around this axis.

     Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, thermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass processing. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the most well-known design being the potter’s wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, flat surfaces, and screw threads or helixes.

     Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include screws, candlesticks, gun barrels, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats and musical instruments.

Parts of Lathe Machine:

The Parts of the lathe machine are as follows:

1.      Headstock: The headstock is usually located on the left side of the lathe and is equipped with gears, spindles, chucks, gear speed control levers, and feed controllers.

2.      Tailstock: The work piece is usually on the right side of the lathe and supported by Tailstock at the end.

3.      Bed: The main parts of the lathe, all parts are bolted to the bed. It includes the headstock, tailstock, carriage rails, and other parts.

4.      Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock and contains an apron, saddle, composite support, cross slide, and tool holder.

5.      Lead Screw: The lead screw is used to move the carriage automatically during threading.

6.      Feed Rod: It is used to move the carriage from left to right and vice versa.

7.      Chip Pan: It’s on the bottom of the lathe. The chip pan is used to collect the chips generated during the lathe operation.

8.      Hand Wheel: The wheel is hand-operated to move a cross slide, carriage, tailstock, and other parts with a hand wheel.

9.      Chuck: It allows the mounting of difficult workpieces that are not round, square, or triangular.

10.  Cooling device: The cooling device mainly uses a cooling water pump to suppress the slotted liquid in the water tank, spray it on the cutting point, wash the chips, and lower the cutting temperature.

11.  Legs: They are supports that carry the entire weight of the machine over them.

12.  Slide box: This is the control box for the feed movement of the lathe.

13.  Spindle: The hole through the headstock to which bar stock can be fed.

14.  Cross Slide: Mounted on the traverse slide of the carriage, and uses a hand wheel to feed tools into the work piece.

15.  Apron; Attached to the front of the carriage, it has the mechanism and controls for moving the carriage and cross slide.

Module: Technical English                             

Level: L01

Teacher: Halaimia Imene                                                     

Course:  Model Verbs + Comparatives

What is a modal verb?

     The modal verbs in English grammar are can, could, may, might, must, need not, shall/will, should/ought to. They express things like ability, permission, possibility, obligation etc. Modal verbs only have one form. They do not take -s in the simple present and they do not have a past simple or past participle form.

Modal Verb





Strong obligation

You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.


must not


You must not smoke in the hospital.




I can swim.



Can I use your phone, please?



Smoking can cause cancer.



ability in the past

When I was younger I could run fast.


polite permission

Excuse me, could I just say something?



It could rain tomorrow!




May I use your phone, please?


possibility, probability

It may rain tomorrow!



polite permission

Might I suggest an idea?


possibility, probability

I might go on holiday to Australia next year.


should/ought to

50 % obligation

I should / ought to see a doctor. I have a terrible headache.



You should / ought to revise your lessons


logical conclusion

He should / ought to be very tired. He's been working all day long.


will/ shall

requests/ask somebody to do something

Max, will you change that tyre?

Change the tyre, will you?

Shall I change that tyre?



Conjugation of English Modal Verbs

There are a few points to consider when using modal verbs in a sentence:

  • Modal verbs are generally only used in the present tense in English but we don’t add an -s in the third person singular.


He must do what he is told.
(not: He musts …)


Max need not worry about his future.
Max must not touch any dangerous equipment.
Can Max change a tyre?

  • We always use modal verbs with a main verb (except for short answers and question tags). The main verb is used in the infinitive without to.


Max can change tyres.
(not: Max can to change tyres.)

II/ Comparative adjectives:

     When we talk about two things (not three or more), we can "compare" them. We can see if they are the same or different. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences such as "bigger" is the comparative form of the adjective "big”.

01/ Formation of Comparative Adjectives:

There are two ways to make or to "form" a comparative adjective:

01/ One-syllable adjectives (big, cold, hot, long, nice, old, tall)

To form the comparative, we use the -er suffix with adjectives of one syllable:

·         It’s colder today than yesterday.

01/ One-syllable adjectives which are irregular

 Some one-syllable adjectives have irregular comparative forms: bad ; worse/far ;  farther /  good  ;  better/ old  ;  older,

·         The morning flight is better than the afternoon one.

·         His elder sister works for the government.

·         Pluto is the furthest planet from the sun in our solar system.

*/Two-syllable adjectives

     Two-syllable adjectives ending in -y change y to i and take the -er: busy     busier,  

happy      happier, easy       easier

·         We were busier last week than this week.

·         Are you happier now that you’ve changed your job?

02/ Longer adjectives

     Adjectives of three or more syllables form the comparative with more/less:

·         The second lecture was more interesting than the first.

·         Not: The second lecture was interestinger …

·         That way of calculating the figures seems less complicated to me.

·        London is the most popular tourist destination in England.

Less and not as/not so with comparatives

     We use less with longer adjectives (interesting, beautiful, complicated), but we don’t normally use less with short adjectives of one syllable (big, good, high, small). Instead we use not asas …, or not soas … Not as is more common than not so:

·         The second method was less complicated than the first one.

·         This new laptop is not as fast as my old one. I’m sorry I bought it now.




Ce cours est destiné pour vous amener à un apprentissage progressif des règles de la langue, des régularités et des exceptions, de comprendre le fonctionnement de la langue, ce qui vous permettra par la suite de vous exprimer à l’oral et à l’écrit dans les autres matières.